Monday, July 27, 2020

DHgate

DHgate WHAT IS DHGATE?The CompanyDHgate is a Chinese ecommerce platform which focuses on business to business sales. The aim of this website is to create a connection between small and mid-sized businesses based in China and potential buyers worldwide. These potential buyers can purchases products manufactured in China from the website directly from the manufacturer. As with other Chinese ecommerce platforms, the website offers detailed customer support through email, telephone and chat services.The name is derived from the word Dunhuang which is a Chinese city in the Gansu province. In ancient times, the city was a strategic location along the Silk Road which connected China the rest of the world. The company draws on this comparison and positions itself as a modern day Silk Road, providing the same connection between China and the rest of the world.The products listed on the website include electronics, sports supplies, clothes, accessories and beauty products among others. The majority o f buyers for the website are located in North America and Europe. HistoryDiane WangThe company was created by Diane Wang in 2004. Wang remains the current CEO of the company. A well-known figure in China, she is often covered by the country’s media. Prior to founding DHgate, she was among the people who created Joyo.com, now Amazon China. During her career she has served as the country marketing director for Cisco Systems China, managing China marketing communications. Her other credentials include Marketing Service Manager and Head of Business Development for Microsoft China for six years.Diana has received the ‘Outstanding Woman of China’ and ‘Outstanding Woman of Beijing’ awards. These are two of the highest accolades received by professional women in China.She began her career as a lecturer at the TsingHua University in Beijing, China. Ambitious for more, she applied for a position in Microsoft China and was selected. Though the corporate culture was a bit of a shock f or her, she managed to stay on and went on to outperform all other sales teams. Though she faced class ceiling when it came to promotions and growth, she persevered and took each new supervisor as an opportunity to learn and grow. It paid off, with a promotion that made her the first professional executive to be promoted in the company from mainland China.After moving to Cisco, she co-founded Joyo.com and led the startup through the internet boom and downturn. The business grew and was eventually acquired by Amazon. In 2004, she created a new ecommerce platform by the name of DHgate. The company had 425 employees as of 2012 with 50 percent of them being female.The CompanyAs of 2011, the company is said to have close to 25 million listings of products from as many as 900,000 suppliers who are Chinese. There are also 4 million buyers registered from as many as 230 different countries. The company’s quick growth landed it on the 2009 Deloitte list for China’s Top 50 Fast Growing En terprises.The company had a strategic relationship with PayPal till 2012. Since then, PayPal is no longer an accepted means of payment on the website. The company works with China Construction Bank to provide a microloan service to those users who have good record on the website. The company also works with UPS and eBay.THE BUSINESS MODELThe website does not charge a membership fee from either buyer or seller. Instead, it charges only a commission as a percentage of successful transaction amounts. This percentage ranges from 3 percent to 10 percent. Though the website remains free for sellers, a special value added services feature called DHfactory has recently been added. Sellers can pay an annual fee to avail this service. The company is set to launch further exclusive services to compete better in the Chinese online wholesale market.Buyers and sellers are required to interact through the website. There is an escrow payment service that protects buyers and a customer service depar tment to help resolve disputes.The company is built to facilitate small and medium sized Chinese enterprises. Average order sizes remain small for this reason. The variety of items listed however, is not affected by the size of the businesses and categories of products include clothes, bags, shoes, sports items, toys, jewelry, electronics, mobile phones, musical instruments, car parts, video games and many more.DifferentiationDHgate differs from other Chinese ecommerce platforms by focusing on only smaller scale manufacturers and suppliers. In addition, the transactions and payments are through the website which offers some degree of trust and reliability for the buyers. The website offers benefits to small suppliers that have thus far been restricted to only larger and more business aware suppliers. These small suppliers are able to get quick and easy access to the global supply chain.LESSONS FROM THE DHGATE FOUNDERThe DHgate founder has overcome odds again and again to become one of the most respected and successful business women in China. Because of her experience with multinationals as well as startups, as well as her entrepreneurial venture, she has a lot to offer to potential entrepreneurs.6 Tips for Achieving Entrepreneurial GoalsDream Big: This is Wang’s number one prerequisite for any entrepreneur. She believes that the road to the fulfillment of any dream is full of adversity and the temptation to give up. If the dream is big enough and the belief in it strong enough, then these difficulties can be overcome and the goal achieved. She says, “The original dream is the foundation that empowers you to stay focused whenever you feel lost.”Make Entrepreneurship a Lifestyle: According to Wang, no one can treat entrepreneurship as a part time endeavor. Instead, it needs to be a lifestyle change and choice which goes on to impact every aspect on your life. She believes that a person needs to be physically and psychologically strong to handle any challe nges that arise. As an employee of a company, one always has the option to leave the job if one is not challenged or happy. But as an entrepreneur, the option to give up or take a break is not available at all.Let go of Comfort Zones: When you are an entrepreneur, there is no chance of being able to stay within your comfort zone. There has to be a constant readiness to play any role that needs to be played and stretch yourself in often unexpected ways. Wang says that she was not always comfortable with public speaking. But when she became the public face of her company she had no choice but to practice, overcome anxiety and become a strong speaker. She says, “Over time, I realized it was an invaluable self-improvement process, and an opportunity to grow with the company.”Don’t Look for Shortcuts: DHgate was created when the value of ecommerce was still not understood or recognized by most people in the country. To overcome this lack of awareness, Wang and her team made dozens of trips on trains, motorcycles and even donkey carts to get across the country and explain the benefits directly to the manufacturers. There is no magic pill and real work needs to be done to achieve success.Find Your Niche: Wang believes that it is important to narrow focus and find a niche to work within. It is not always possible to beat all competitors in all areas. Instead, a niche along with a unique selling point can help differentiate you from competitors and become the biggest fish in your pond.Lean on Others When Needed: Wang emphasizes the importance of staying outwardly focused as well. This includes getting to know people in the field but outside the company and build up a network. This network can then be leveraged to fill any gaps in the business. This can be done through a partnership with people or companies. Experienced investors can be identified and encouraged to invest in the business to help growth. Wang says, “This allows you to remain focused on what you a re good at, and to unleash your potential to create something of significance.”TAKING PRECAUTIONSServices Offered by DHGATEThe website offers three services that can protect buyers from counterfeits or scams.Seller Feedback: This is a rating given to each seller by various buyers. A higher rating means a higher degree of reliability given previous performance. The comments section gives more detail about the ease of doing business, seller attitude, credibility, reliability and support.Escrow Service: The escrow service sees DHgate act as a third party that collects and holds payment till the merchandise is shipped and received. If the buyer accepts the merchandise, then the payment is released by the escrow service.Dispute Process: When any disputes do occur, there is a dispute resolution process that tracks, manages and resolves disputes as quickly as possible with DHgate acting as a neutral and impartial mediator. Scams and SpeculationAs mentioned previously, there is not a lot of information available on this ecommerce platform. Though some of the information that is available is positive and encouraging, there is also a lot of confusion and many bad reviews on different websites. This lack of complete information means that any attempt to do business through DHgate should be undertaken after careful consideration, research and initial orders should be smaller amounts so as to find reliable suppliers for longer term commitments. There is also a danger of counterfeits and badly made items which again means a loss of revenue if investment is made in purchasing them.[slideshare id=30297007doc=dhgatescam-140122061325-phpapp02]Common ComplaintsSome of the negative customer experiences from DHgate include:Clothes: The most common issue that buyers face when buying clothes from the website are materials, fitting and delivery time. Most reviewers have felt that the items are delivered later than promised, often missing important occasions for which they were orde red. Others have found the items to be ill-fitting even though specific measurements had been provided. Still others found design mismatch from promised items as well as use of inferior quality materials.Electronics: Items are often received in battered conditions and will not work when turned on. Often they turn out to be non-working imitations. Some are sent to be exchanged and the seller disappears without replacing the item.Understanding Complaints: Users often find it difficult to communicate with both suppliers and DHgate employees themselves. DHgate is often accused of siding only with the supplier and not making an effort to understand the nature of the problem.Items Different from Listed Ones: A common complaint is when items delivered are drastically different from those shown on the website. In several such cases, the supplier becomes impossible to reach, does not respond to queries and the payment is released as the item has been delivered according to DHgate escrow rule s.Extremely High Shipping Costs: Some sellers will charge extremely high shipping costs as a way to offset the low prices on offer. It is a good idea to check all shipping charges before finalizing an order.ScamsThe most common scam found listed on the various review websites is when the seller sends an empty envelope to the wrong address deliberately. The item appears as delivered and the escrow service releases payment. In reality, the item is never shipped and never received by the customer.The other type of scam is basic counterfeit products. The supplier claims to sell originals at significantly lower prices than the original. These turn out to be counterfeits almost all the time.DHGATE SUCCESS STORIES © DHgateDHgate is a Chinese ecommerce platform for wholesale items sold by small and medium sized manufacturers and retailers. In this article, we will look at, 1) what is DHgate?, 2) the business model, 3) lessons from the DHgate founder, 4) taking precautions, and 5) DHgate success stories.WHAT IS DHGATE?The CompanyDHgate is a Chinese ecommerce platform which focuses on business to business sales. The aim of this website is to create a connection between small and mid-sized businesses based in China and potential buyers worldwide. These potential buyers can purchases products manufactured in China from the website directly from the manufacturer. As with other Chinese ecommerce platforms, the website offers detailed customer support through email, telephone and chat services.The name is derived from the word Dunhuang which is a Chinese city in the Gansu province. In ancient times, the city was a strategic location along the Silk Road which connected China the rest of the world. The company draws on this comparison and positions itself as a modern day Silk Road, providing the same connection between China and the rest of the world.The products listed on the website include electronics, sports supplies, clothes, accessories and beauty products among others. The majority of buyers for the website are located in North America and Europe. HistoryDiane WangThe company was created by Diane Wang in 2004. Wang remains the current CEO of the company. A well-known figure in China, she is often covered by the country’s media. Prior to founding DHgate, she was among the people who created Joyo.com, now Amazon China. During her career she has served as the country marketing director for Cisco Systems China, managing China marketing communications. Her other credentials include Marketing Service Manager and Head of Business Development for Microsoft China for six years.Diana has received the ‘Outstanding Woman of China’ and ‘Outstanding Woman of Beijing’ awards. T hese are two of the highest accolades received by professional women in China.She began her career as a lecturer at the TsingHua University in Beijing, China. Ambitious for more, she applied for a position in Microsoft China and was selected. Though the corporate culture was a bit of a shock for her, she managed to stay on and went on to outperform all other sales teams. Though she faced class ceiling when it came to promotions and growth, she persevered and took each new supervisor as an opportunity to learn and grow. It paid off, with a promotion that made her the first professional executive to be promoted in the company from mainland China.After moving to Cisco, she co-founded Joyo.com and led the startup through the internet boom and downturn. The business grew and was eventually acquired by Amazon. In 2004, she created a new ecommerce platform by the name of DHgate. The company had 425 employees as of 2012 with 50 percent of them being female.The CompanyAs of 2011, the company is said to have close to 25 million listings of products from as many as 900,000 suppliers who are Chinese. There are also 4 million buyers registered from as many as 230 different countries. The company’s quick growth landed it on the 2009 Deloitte list for China’s Top 50 Fast Growing Enterprises.The company had a strategic relationship with PayPal till 2012. Since then, PayPal is no longer an accepted means of payment on the website. The company works with China Construction Bank to provide a microloan service to those users who have good record on the website. The company also works with UPS and eBay.THE BUSINESS MODELThe website does not charge a membership fee from either buyer or seller. Instead, it charges only a commission as a percentage of successful transaction amounts. This percentage ranges from 3 percent to 10 percent. Though the website remains free for sellers, a special value added services feature called DHfactory has recently been added. Sellers can pay an an nual fee to avail this service. The company is set to launch further exclusive services to compete better in the Chinese online wholesale market.Buyers and sellers are required to interact through the website. There is an escrow payment service that protects buyers and a customer service department to help resolve disputes.The company is built to facilitate small and medium sized Chinese enterprises. Average order sizes remain small for this reason. The variety of items listed however, is not affected by the size of the businesses and categories of products include clothes, bags, shoes, sports items, toys, jewelry, electronics, mobile phones, musical instruments, car parts, video games and many more.DifferentiationDHgate differs from other Chinese ecommerce platforms by focusing on only smaller scale manufacturers and suppliers. In addition, the transactions and payments are through the website which offers some degree of trust and reliability for the buyers. The website offers bene fits to small suppliers that have thus far been restricted to only larger and more business aware suppliers. These small suppliers are able to get quick and easy access to the global supply chain.LESSONS FROM THE DHGATE FOUNDERThe DHgate founder has overcome odds again and again to become one of the most respected and successful business women in China. Because of her experience with multinationals as well as startups, as well as her entrepreneurial venture, she has a lot to offer to potential entrepreneurs.6 Tips for Achieving Entrepreneurial GoalsDream Big: This is Wang’s number one prerequisite for any entrepreneur. She believes that the road to the fulfillment of any dream is full of adversity and the temptation to give up. If the dream is big enough and the belief in it strong enough, then these difficulties can be overcome and the goal achieved. She says, “The original dream is the foundation that empowers you to stay focused whenever you feel lost.”Make Entrepreneurship a Lifestyle: According to Wang, no one can treat entrepreneurship as a part time endeavor. Instead, it needs to be a lifestyle change and choice which goes on to impact every aspect on your life. She believes that a person needs to be physically and psychologically strong to handle any challenges that arise. As an employee of a company, one always has the option to leave the job if one is not challenged or happy. But as an entrepreneur, the option to give up or take a break is not available at all.Let go of Comfort Zones: When you are an entrepreneur, there is no chance of being able to stay within your comfort zone. There has to be a constant readiness to play any role that needs to be played and stretch yourself in often unexpected ways. Wang says that she was not always comfortable with public speaking. But when she became the public face of her company she had no choice but to practice, overcome anxiety and become a strong speaker. She says, “Over time, I realized it was an i nvaluable self-improvement process, and an opportunity to grow with the company.”Don’t Look for Shortcuts: DHgate was created when the value of ecommerce was still not understood or recognized by most people in the country. To overcome this lack of awareness, Wang and her team made dozens of trips on trains, motorcycles and even donkey carts to get across the country and explain the benefits directly to the manufacturers. There is no magic pill and real work needs to be done to achieve success.Find Your Niche: Wang believes that it is important to narrow focus and find a niche to work within. It is not always possible to beat all competitors in all areas. Instead, a niche along with a unique selling point can help differentiate you from competitors and become the biggest fish in your pond.Lean on Others When Needed: Wang emphasizes the importance of staying outwardly focused as well. This includes getting to know people in the field but outside the company and build up a network . This network can then be leveraged to fill any gaps in the business. This can be done through a partnership with people or companies. Experienced investors can be identified and encouraged to invest in the business to help growth. Wang says, “This allows you to remain focused on what you are good at, and to unleash your potential to create something of significance.”TAKING PRECAUTIONSServices Offered by DHGATEThe website offers three services that can protect buyers from counterfeits or scams.Seller Feedback: This is a rating given to each seller by various buyers. A higher rating means a higher degree of reliability given previous performance. The comments section gives more detail about the ease of doing business, seller attitude, credibility, reliability and support.Escrow Service: The escrow service sees DHgate act as a third party that collects and holds payment till the merchandise is shipped and received. If the buyer accepts the merchandise, then the payment is release d by the escrow service.Dispute Process: When any disputes do occur, there is a dispute resolution process that tracks, manages and resolves disputes as quickly as possible with DHgate acting as a neutral and impartial mediator. Scams and SpeculationAs mentioned previously, there is not a lot of information available on this ecommerce platform. Though some of the information that is available is positive and encouraging, there is also a lot of confusion and many bad reviews on different websites. This lack of complete information means that any attempt to do business through DHgate should be undertaken after careful consideration, research and initial orders should be smaller amounts so as to find reliable suppliers for longer term commitments. There is also a danger of counterfeits and badly made items which again means a loss of revenue if investment is made in purchasing them.[slideshare id=30297007doc=dhgatescam-140122061325-phpapp02]Common ComplaintsSome of the negative custome r experiences from DHgate include:Clothes: The most common issue that buyers face when buying clothes from the website are materials, fitting and delivery time. Most reviewers have felt that the items are delivered later than promised, often missing important occasions for which they were ordered. Others have found the items to be ill-fitting even though specific measurements had been provided. Still others found design mismatch from promised items as well as use of inferior quality materials.Electronics: Items are often received in battered conditions and will not work when turned on. Often they turn out to be non-working imitations. Some are sent to be exchanged and the seller disappears without replacing the item.Understanding Complaints: Users often find it difficult to communicate with both suppliers and DHgate employees themselves. DHgate is often accused of siding only with the supplier and not making an effort to understand the nature of the problem.Items Different from List ed Ones: A common complaint is when items delivered are drastically different from those shown on the website. In several such cases, the supplier becomes impossible to reach, does not respond to queries and the payment is released as the item has been delivered according to DHgate escrow rules.Extremely High Shipping Costs: Some sellers will charge extremely high shipping costs as a way to offset the low prices on offer. It is a good idea to check all shipping charges before finalizing an order.ScamsThe most common scam found listed on the various review websites is when the seller sends an empty envelope to the wrong address deliberately. The item appears as delivered and the escrow service releases payment. In reality, the item is never shipped and never received by the customer.The other type of scam is basic counterfeit products. The supplier claims to sell originals at significantly lower prices than the original. These turn out to be counterfeits almost all the time.DHGATE SU CCESS STORIESAccording to the DHgate founder, there are many success stories from sellers who have used the platform to break barriers and achieve success. She mentions a young Chinese woman from a poor background who sold clothes through the website and eventually made enough money to move to Paris and study fashion design. There are also many stories of middle-aged women with children who have left home, who have built up businesses by selling products from home.However, because of the predominantly small scale nature of Chinese sellers that list on DHgate, there is very little direct information available about these sellers and their success stories. Instead, there are many stories of people or other small businesses in different parts of the world who buy from these Chinese sellers and successfully run their own businesses based on these products. Some of these stories include:William Daniel â€" USAWilliam began by scoping out several websites for products and prices before dec iding to try out DHgate with a small electronics purchase. It was delivered on time and he was able to sell it for a profit. He continued to purchase from DHgate and sell onwards eventually growing his business enough to hire employees and continue to grow. He suggests researching the marketplace thoroughly before deciding to buy. He also suggests checking out the seller completely through ratings and conversations over email, chat or phone before establishing any relationship. If all else fails, he counts on the DHgate escrow service and the customer service team for support.Martin Flynn â€" USAMartin uses DHgate to purchase cell phone related items and accessories to sell via his own online retail business. He now relies on DHgate as his only source of supply. He finds their prices extremely competitive and is happy with reliability of service.Carlucho Sabal â€" USASabal runs a small company that conducts business in Venezuela. The company was unable to raise the substantial funds required to import products in bulk via a container from China. They decided to go small instead and purchase from different wholesale websites online. Through some of these, the items received were either damaged or got lost in transit. At this point they discovered DHgate. There were some initial issues before they understood and started making use of the seller feedback system. Once this was sorted out, Sabal’s company was in a position to select reliable sellers and slowly grow their own business.Timur Hassan â€" UKTimur heard about DHgate and after preliminary research, decided to give the service a try. He created an online store and started listing items that he purchased from DHgate. After experimenting for two months, he decided to establish a relationship with one of the sellers. This seller was reliable and shipped sealed, good quality products as listed on the website. Shipping was quick and any damaged items were replaced easily. He is especially happy with the DHgat e escrow service which holds the buyer’s money until the item is delivered. He manages to resolve any issues with support from the DHgate live chat service.Image credit: DHgate.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Treatment Of Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities

History Historically, substance abuse issues were thought of as a male problem (Bride 2011). Treatment center programs, methods and models are constructed around the male psychological needs rather than mix-gender needs. Literature shows that 12-step programs, therapy, individual counseling, group therapy and many other models provide to the increase in success stories however there is a lack in research focusing on the needs of the gender individual (Marsh, Cao, Shin 2009). Substance abuse treatment facilities have utilized very similar models of treatment throughout history with very little change in the programs. Throughout the years, many more facilities have implemented different gender specific treatment programs but very little research has been conducted on these programs. Comparing men and women in relation to their specific needs found that women typically report more psychiatric symptoms, more depression and anxiety, lower self esteem and much higher rates of childhood se xual abuse than men (Bride 2011). Many studies show that treatment is more effective when tailored to meet specific client needs. According to Marsh, Cao, and Shin (2009) substance abuse treatment is more effective when health, mental health, parenting, vocational, housing and legal issues are addressed. Women in treatment programs express more concern about specific needs although the program itself is specific towards male needs. The reoccurring issue in substance abuse treatment historyShow MoreRelatedA Substance Abuse Treatment Facility1606 Words   |  7 PagesNon-Discrimination As a substance abuse treatment facility we are required to protect the fundamental human, civil, constitutional and statutory rights of each client receiving services with us. 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AfterRead MoreDrug Abuse And Substance Abuse Essay1451 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract Approximately eighty percent of the inmates in correctional facilities have problems related to substance abuse. The number of male inmates has increased considerably in the recent years mainly due to a high number arrests and prosecutions that are drug related. Many correctional facilities offer educational and treatment interventions to help them. However, significant gaps remain.The Justice’s Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program in the U.S tracks prevalence trends and the type of drugsRead MoreThe Abuse Affects An Estimated 25 Million Americans844 Words   |  4 PageslSubstance abuse affects an estimated 25 million Americans. This includes the individual abusing the substance as well as others that are indirectly affected by the substance abuse, such as: friends and family of the abuser as well as people injured or killed in accidents related to substance abuse impairment. 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Substance abuse can lead to domestic violence, child abuse, suicide, crime, automobile accidents, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and unwanted pregnancy. A particular area of concern of drug use and abuse is the impact of methamphetamine (meth) labs on public safety and the environmentRead MoreOur Traditional Criminal Justice System957 Words   |  4 Pagesthese issues would be to have more certified substance abuse counselors. Other key factors would be to work on strategies, have key components in place, key partnerships to make the goals attainable, and above all to help the offender/clients (http://www.ncpc.org/topics/drug-abuse/strategies/strategy-substance-abuse-counseling-in-correctional-facilities). I feel that there should be more private and state run facilities that have certified substance abuse counselors. I have three younger sisters

Friday, May 8, 2020

The Problem With Vietnam Essays - 1660 Words

The Problem With Vietnam Wartime in the United States has always placed pressure on the government and the citizens of the country to provide support by whatever means to the situation. During World War II, that support was propagated by the government in the form of censorship and a strategic public relations plan to maintain the public opinion in favor of the cause. Glorification of Americas involvement in the war helped America maintain the image of a cause worth fighting for. Technology and de-censorship would later transform America and the worlds image of war, which had been formed by such propaganda as seen during WWII, into the truth about war as seen in the medias coverage of the Vietnam War. During this period,†¦show more content†¦However, the flip side to the censorship, the side that is not often seen, is the fact that this helped to break down many barriers in the country, including race, gender and even religious. Its effects on the outcome of the war cannot be measured by tradit ional means, but indeed it created an atmosphere of pride and loyalty for ones country. World War II may have been a censored war, but that censorship may have indeed won that war. According to Philip Knightleys The First Casualty during World War I, censorship was so tight that even reports of a gift of wine cases to American troops by the French were not reported for fear of making the Americans look unsavory (Alter 38). An after effect of World War IIs propagation can be seen in the tremendous press coverage of the Vietnam War. Feelings of mistrust and betrayal toward the US government could very well have been why Vietnam had so much coverage. American citizens wanted the truth, feeling that they had been lied to for so many years. The truth was what was received thanks to Television (Alter 38). Nicknamed the Living Room War, images of death and destruction could be seen first hand. 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However, the Vietnam veterans were received with resentmentRead MoreHow Communication Affects The Country, Issues, Problems, Solutions, And Solutions Of Vietnam s Communication1212 Words   |  5 Pagesnewspapers or reports. This research essay will talk about how communications such as print media or telecommunications have developed in Vietnam. The main topics in this essay will be about the history of communication, factors that led to the improvement of communication, communication benefits to the country, issues, problems and solutions of Vietnam’s communication. 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Crowell analyzes the lessons learned from Vietnam and applies them to the military strategies of today. Crowell does overlook some problems involving the power of Saddam Hussein after Desert Storm and the comparison of two dissimilar wars. Crowell is effective in his arguments with the use of first-hand viewpointsRead MoreProblems With The Vietnamese War Veterans1609 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction This report aims to find and discuss about the problems that the Vietnamese war veterans face and at the end there will be ways that can help, how they were treated and viewed by their fellow countrymen when they returned back home. How did it impact Countries/governments and who protested against the Vietnam War. All these question will be answered on the main paragraphs bellow. What was the problem for the Vietnamese war veterans? Problem that the Vietnamese war veterans faced was the psychologicalRead MoreThe Vietnam War Had A Tremendous Effect On The World1415 Words   |  6 PagesThe Vietnam War had a tremendous effect on the world, especially the United States. Not only did the war affect people in battle, but also left permanent effects on people all over the world. Over 57,000 U.S. citizens died and over 140,000 injured in battle. Multiple Americans were impacted by the war, vast amount of people died but more were injured. North Vietnam won the battle against South Vietnam and their allies. The Fall of Saigon in 1975 was the end of a gruesome war. The war had multipleRead MoreThe Vietnam War And The Cold War1494 Words   |  6 Pages When examining the Vietnam War you must first understand the involvement of the events surrounding the Cold War. The ‘Vietnam War’ as it is known is a product of the cold war era, by this I mean that events in the Cold War led to the US’s involvement and creation of issues causing the conflict. â€Å"The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the communist regime of North Vietnam and its southern allies, known as the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the UnitedRead MoreThe Vietnam War Was The Biggest Failure Of The 20th Century1628 Words   |  7 PagesThe Vietnam War The Vietnam War is one of the most controversial wars the United States participated in. Communism in the 20th century, was a huge threat to the U.S. It become a priority of the U.S. to stop the spread of Communism. In the late 1940s, the French struggled to control its colonies in Indochina - Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (history.state.gov). The U.S. saw that the French were struggling in south Vietnam so they decided to come and help France. They tried to support France and theRead MoreVietnam War Rhetorical Analysis896 Words   |  4 Pagesduring the Vietnam War, so he decided to speak against their involvement. The U.S’s involvement to ending communism has led to negative impacts on the lives of the Vietnamese people. Martin Luther King Jr. has many reasons to why he wants the United States to resolve its problem with Vietnam through peaceful acts such as ending all bombing and removing all troops from Vietnam. MLK started his speech with stating how â€Å"A time comes when silence is betrayal,† the Vietnam War is a problem that MLK wantedRead MoreThe Vietnam War, American Men And Women Soldiers1368 Words   |  6 PagesDuring the Vietnam War, American men and women soldiers, the majority of whom had volunteered, were sent to a place where nothing was accommodating. Not even the soldier’s issued equipment was adequate or accommodating. They were not emotionally, psychologically, or materially equipped for what they would encounter in Vietnam, or upon their return to a place where they should have been safe; home. The Vietnam environment was nasty, brutish, and dehumanizing on the soldiers. Young men and women, mostly

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Predatory Lending and Monthly Payment Free Essays

This module described various predatory practices by businesses. Using scholarly resources, describe some specific examples of predatory practices. With housing bubble bursting a few years ago, many say that the current economic problems the United States is currently experiencing can be directly attributed to the housing crisis. We will write a custom essay sample on Predatory Lending and Monthly Payment or any similar topic only for you Order Now Depending on whom you ask the housing crisis can be blamed on people biting off more than they can chew, or predatory lending practices by banks and mortgage companies. This is not a one sized solution fits all answer, both actions contributed to the housing troubles we as a country are currently experiencing. The housing crisis can be summarized as the over evaluation of house values in the late 90’s and early 2000’s,and shortly there after peoples mortgage debt became larger than the decreasing value of their home come 2006. Sub-prime loans can also be blamed; I will further discuss predatory lending techniques. One type of predatory lending practice that mortgage companies will use is to emphasize the payment. When this happens the lender focuses on a numerical monthly payment that you are able to afford. The down side to this car salesmen like approach, is that the details of the monthly payment can be skewed to hurt you down the road in the future while appearing like a good deal in the near future. Another predatory practice is called ballooned loans. This type of lending gives the borrower a small monthly payment only covering interest. The last payment covers the principal, normally representing a large borrowed figure. You will have to make one large balloon payment in order to retire the principal of the loan. Most of the time, no one prepares for this payment and basis foreclosure on their home(1). Should the debtor or borrower bear some responsibility, at least in some instances? Explain why or why not? Tactics like this leave the borrower at a marked disadvantage, but who should shoulder the burden of responsibility in circumstances like these. I am of the opinion that fault lies in both, the lender and borrower. The lender bears the burden of following the law and regulations set forth, however as e’ve discussed this week laws are there as a guideline and they don’t cover every ethical decision making situation. Lenders are in competition with other lenders to get and keep peoples business, therefore they are apt to try and find a way to seek an advantage over another lender. They may do this by turning to predatory practice hoping to unknowingly take advantage of borrowers. On the other side of the argument, the borrower bears the burden of understand and reading the written contract agreement and terms of the contract. If a borrower is to just sign a contract without reading or having a professional go over the details then they ultimately reap what they sew. Language in these contracts do not exactly benefit the average person, the average person most likely wouldn’t be able to determine whether or not predatory practices are taking place. Ultimately, the only defense for a person with an average ability to read and understand complex contract verbiage are the regulations set forth to limit the practices the lenders may use. How to cite Predatory Lending and Monthly Payment, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Infrastructure Facilities And Road Infrastructure Services Tourism Essay Essay Example

Infrastructure Facilities And Road Infrastructure Services Tourism Essay Essay Road sector constitutes a significant portion of substructure in India.An efficient route web is necessary for the state like India for national integrating and economic development. Road is the primary mean of transit which helps us in linking to different cities.Roads portion a large portion of transit of goods and services. India has a huge web of 3.3 million kilometer which is the 2nd largest route web in universe. Roadss involve in transporting approximately 61 % frieght and 85 % of the rider traffic. We will write a custom essay sample on Infrastructure Facilities And Road Infrastructure Services Tourism Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Infrastructure Facilities And Road Infrastructure Services Tourism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Infrastructure Facilities And Road Infrastructure Services Tourism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer 66000 kilometer of main roads and freewaies carry about 40 % of route traffic. The authorities of India takes enterprises in the development of roads nad spends about about Rs.18000 crores ( US $ 4 billion ) . Roadss in Ranchi Ranchi is connected with 2 National Highways ( NH-23 A ; NH- 33 ) which cross it and NH-75 originates here. Lots of rural and urban route development procedures are traveling on in Ranchi with the aid of province authorities.Recently the province authorities with the support of NHDC has constituted a program to spread out the route connectivity of different territory central office to this capital metropolis with 4-lane main roads of international criterions. There are no local coach services available in Ranchi. For transposing from one topographic point to another 1 can engage or portion an Auto Rickshaw and taxis are besides available. Cycle jinrikisha are a more common manner to go for short distances. The metropolis has one State Bus Terminus where coachs are available for going to Bokaro steel metropolis, Jamshedpur, Patna, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Alipurduar, Siliguri, Kolkata and Rourkela. The State Bus Terminus is located near the Ranchi Railway station.There are besides buses available for Kolkata, Banaras, Rourkela and metropoliss of other eastern provinces. Ratu Road is another Private Bus Terminus where coachs are available for finishs in Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. There has been a considerable development in Ranchi along the major regional linkages in a radial form in the yesteryear. Besides there has been a applaudable attempt in the recent old ages to better the pavement conditions of major roads and roads under Ranchi Municiple Corporation. The primary concern in is decongestion, Mass theodolite system, betterment of the traffic velocity, betterment of route gears, canalisation of traffic, traffic subject, to provide to the ever-increasing figure of vehicles in the metropolis, which is projected to be doubled by the following 5 old ages. Regional linkages Ranchi is good linked to other parts of the province and India, by Road, Rail A ; Air. NH-23 connects the metropolis in south-western way to Chattisgarh. NH-33 which passes through Ranchi metropolis, linking in north to Hazaribagh, Dhanbad and farther to UP and Delhi, in south-east to Jamshedpur, Orissa A ; Kolkata. NH-75 connects the metropolis in West to the western portion of the province and farther to Bombay. Road Network in the metropolis Ranchi has developed well along with all major roads and other regional linkages in the past old ages. The commercial activity preponderantly have developed along the north-south Main Road which is the major arteria of the metropolis, get downing at the Upper Bazar at north-west, Administrative offices at north, Commercial Centres along the cardinal spinal column, Administrative office at the South A ; south-east, climaxing to self sufficient Industrial Area ( HEC, HSL ) at the south-west terminal as seen on the Proposed Master Plan of Ranchi -1983, by Ranchi Ruaral Development Authority ( RRDA ) . A Traffic Volume Count Survey has been conducted in the metropolis in different locations to understand the Characteristics of the traffic at critical locations. Understanding of land usage and route denseness is really necessary to take farther stairss towards development. It helps us in happening out the chief jobs and troubles which common people is enduring from this heavy traffic movemnt and their congestion.The traffic velocity on the Main Road is really slow peculiarly during the peak hours as per the study. The breadth of the chief arteria and roads in the metropolis is 10 to 25 metres and the breadth of other major roads is 5 to 10 metres. The country of the metropolis is 173 Sq.Km, and in 1981 the route length per 1000 population in Ranchi was 0.26 kilometer merely and the route length per 100 sq. kilometer. of country it is 72.53 Kms. Till 2008 Ranchi has sum of 569 Km route length. The 14 roads identified as chief traffic transporting corridors by PWD has a entire length of 94 Km, construct amp ; maintained by PWD. The remainder 475 kilometer roads constitute the sub-arterial and colony roads, construct amp ; maintained by RMC. The entire 470km roads maintained by RMC constitute of 346 kilometers roads as pucca roads, Out of which 32 kilometer WBM, 62 kilometers are bituminous A ; 252 kilometers are concrete top. 124 km roads are kuccha building, out of which merely 29 kilometers are motor able and 90 kilometers are non-motorable. Types of Roads History for ( in % ) Pucca with WBM 7 Pucca Bituminous 13 Pucca concrete 55 Kuchcha Motorable 6 Kuchcha Non-motorable 19 From above pie chart it can be derived as: Largely the roads in Ranchi are formed of concrete and are for good constructed. About 75 % of roads are in good status and are distributed as pucca concrete, pucca Bituminous, pucca with WBM. Remaning 25 % of route is referred as kuccha roads which is separated as motorable and non- motorable. Major Roadss in Ranchi H.B. Road ( Hazaribagh Road ) Old H.B Road Round Road Mahatma Gandhi /Main Road Purulia Road Kankee Road Ratu Road Indrapuri Road Bariatu Road HEC Ratu Bypass Road Club Road Church Road Major Intersections in Ranchi Kutchery Firayalal ( Albert Ekka ) Medical ( RMCH ) Kokar Lalpur Karamtoli Kantatoli Booty More BIT More Birsa Chowk Pandra Piska more Dangratoli Chowk Argora Sahjanand Chowk Harmu Bypass Hinoo more Doranda Russian Hotel Dhurwa Chandni Chowk Bus Terminus in Ranchi Birsa Bus Terminus ( Khadgada ) Ratu Road Bus Stand State Transport Bus Terminal ( Overbridge ) Major corridors of the metropolis: S.No. From To Length ( in kilometer ) 1. Firayalal Chowk Shaheed Chowk 0.3 2. Firayalal Chowk Kantatoli Chowk 3 3. Firayalal Chowk Rajendra Chowk 4.2 4. Railway Station Kantatoli Chowk 2.7 5. Railway Station Argora Chowk 3.6 6. Rajendra Chowk Namkum Chowk 5.6 7. Rajendra Chowk Birsa Chowk 3.2 8. Birsa Chowk Hatia 5.7 9. Birsa Chowk Tipudana 7.4 10. Birsa Chowk Argora Chowk 3.4 11. Argora Chowk Ratu Road 4.5 12 Piska More Lalgutua 5 13. Piska More Lohardaga Road 6 14. Piska More Ratu Road 2 15. Shaheed Chowk Kachahri 1.2 16. Shaheed Chowk Ratu Road 1.4 17. Kachahri Karam Toli 1.2 18. Kachahri Ratu Road 1 19. Karam Toli Booty More 6.3 20. Booty More Kantatoli Chowk 5.4 21. Kantatoli Chowk Namkum Chowk 5.8 Entire 78.9 Condition of Roads in Ranchi Though the chief streets of the metropolis are in satisfactory status as the broadening and strengthening of these roads has been done late, the absence of other substructure viz. pathwaies, route marker, rotary, inveighing etc. leads to decrease in traffic velocity. Merely 50 % of major roads have drainage construct along the sides. The inside settlement roads have chuckholes and without proper drainage system along the sides. The kuccha roads on the peripheries are in a really bad province. Growth of vehicles in Ranchi In twelvemonth 1990-2001, the figure of auto-rickshaws is 19.15 per 1000 population, while rhythm jinrikishas are recorded as 23.5 per 1000 population. In the twelvemonth 2008 the figure of car jinrikisha is 26.15 per 1000 population. The enrollment records of the Regional Transport Authority, Ranchi indicate that the enrollment of motorised vehicles, both public and private has increased by 224 % between 1990-01 and 2001-2008 due to big industrial growing in this period, nevertheless the growing has reduced to 63 % between 1990-91 to 2000-01, farther it is expected to turn at non less than 100 % boulder clay 2021. The metropolis shows an increasing tendency in the usage of two-wheelers like scooters, bikes and mopeds etc. The metropolis s transit demand is mostly met by the undermentioned manners of conveyance. Traffic Flows and Travel Demand Major transit issue faced is the legion commuters acquiring into the Central Business District ( CBD ) country from its environing through a high capacity radial web into the dense nucleus country, which is unable to accept the inflow of these flows taking to traffic bottlenecks. Top out hr flows on major traffic corridors is more than 8000 rider auto units ( PCUs ) , farther due to assorted traffic conditions and deficiency of subject, the lane capacity is well reduced. The extremum travel ( traffic ) clip as derived from traffic volumes counts on major roads and supplemented by the available primary informations for different of import traffic corridors is 10-11 AM and 5-6 PM. Peak Hours Traffic Data on Major Roads / Intersections S.No. JUNCTION ROAD Peak hour. In PCU s In Nos. 1 Argora Chowk Dibdih 1000-1100 1705 1912 2 Argora Chowk Old Argora Chowk 1400-1500 2683 3386 3 Argora Chowk Harmu 1800-1900 10595 6624 4 Argora Chowk Ashoka Nagar 1400-1500 217 3166 5 Birsa Chowk HEC 1700-1800 3761 3677 6 Birsa Chowk Hatia 1800-1900 3179 2412 7 Birsa Chowk Hinoo 1800-1900 3193 4550 8 Booti More Bariyatu 1800-1900 2792 1433 9 Booti More BIT Road 1300-1400 4450 2634 10 Booti More Kokar 1700-1800 5013 2822 11 Firayalal Chowk Shaheed Chowk 1400-1500 3859 3608 12 Firayalal Chowk Link tank route 1800-1900 3917 3886 13 Firayalal Chowk Lalpur Chowk 0900-1000 8199 8334 14 Firayalal Chowk Main Road 1400-1500 7690 6391 15 Kantatoli Chowk Dangratoli Chowk 1400-1500 6589 5128 16 Kantatoli Chowk H.B Road 1300-1400 3118 2770 17 Kantatoli Chowk Tata Road 1100-1200 3986 1559 18 Kantatoli Chowk Bahu Bazar 1100-1200 3017 3613 19 Kantatoli Chowk Firayalal Chowk 0900-1000 2737 2782 20 Kantatoli Chowk Mission Chowk 1400-1500 1532 1215 21 Kantatoli Chowk Sujata Chowk 1300-1400 2909 2988 22 Karam Toli Chowk Sainik theatre 0900-1000 1353 1432 23 Karam Toli Chowk Tagore hill 0800-0900 2072 2079 24 Karam Toli Chowk Bariyatu 1000-1100 2263 2246 25 Karam Toli Chowk Aadiwasi hostel 0800-0900 2585 2545 26 Kachahri Chowk Ratu Road 0900-1000 4269 3661 27 Kachahri Chowk Radium Road 1700-1800 2071 2170 28 Kachahri Chowk Lalpur Chowk 2100-2200 6233 1830 29 Kachahri Chowk Shaheed Chowk 1100-1200 3839 1817 30 Namkum Chowk Ranchi 1400-1500 2364 1558 31 Namkum Chowk Ghagra 0800-0900 1706 1368 32 Namkum Chowk Tata route 1800-1900 2237 1785 33 Piska More Ratu 0800-0900 3751 2851 34 Piska More Pandra 1700-1800 2883 3148 35 Piska More ITI route 0800-0900 2383 1478 36 Railway Station Bus Stand 0900-1000 3000 2804 37 Railway Station Bahu Bazar 1000-1100 2389 2452 38 Railway Station Railway Station 0900-1000 2479 2486 39 Railway Station Over Bridge 1600-1700 763 716 40 Rajendra Chowk Nibarampur 1200-1300 2692 1505 41 Rajendra Chowk Doranda 0900-1000 4375 3124 42 Rajendra Chowk Hinoo 1700-1800 3062 3131 43 Rajendra Chowk Over span 0800-0900 2778 1817 44 Ratu route Chowk Piska 1100-1200 4097 3495 45 Ratu route Chowk Raj Bhavan 1000-1100 1578 2000 46 Ratu route Chowk Kachahri 0800-0900 5089 4053 47 Ratu route Chowk Harmu 1000-1100 2384 2478 48 Shaheed Chowk Kachahri 1600-1700 1418 1458 49 Shaheed Chowk Firayalal 1000-1100 5228 5194 50 Shaheed Chowk Pustak 0800-0900 2204 1881 51 Shaheed Chowk Kotwali 1000-1100 2119 2228 Significant external-to-external flows across the nucleus country are prevalent in the metropolis in absence of by-pass roads. This has resulted in the decrease of mean velocities of the vehicles. The present mean velocity is merely approximately 10 kilometers per hr during extremum hours, and it is still likely to cut down if there is no betterment in the state of affairs. Important Land Marks Albert Ekka Chowk Shaheed Chowk Argora Chowk Harmoo Chowk Booty More Kanta Toli Chowk Over Bridge, Nibaranpur Over Bridge, Kadru Rly Over Pass, BM Rajpath, Dibdih Boubazar Chowk Club Chowk Vivekanand Chowk Rajendra Chowk Birsa Chowk HEC Golchakker Dhurwa more Morabadi Maidan Hinoo Chowk AG More Kutchery Chowk Ratan Talking pictures Fun Castle ( Ratu ) Hesag Karamtoli Chowk Chiraundi Lalpur Chowk Namkum Chowk ( Army Base ) Kali Nagar ( Tea Garden, Namkum ) Sadabahar Chowk Kokar Chowk Hatia Ranchi Express ( Upper Bazar ) Chandni Chowk ( Kanke Road ) Gandhi Nagar ( Kanke Road ) Jawahar Nagar ( Kanke Road ) Karbala Chowk ( Church route ) Bariatu Chowk Ratu park Piska More Ratu Road Daily Trip, Composition Sing the entire trips generated in the Ranchi metropolis it can be stated that approximately two trips per individual are made day-to-day that is one unit of ammunition trip per individual per twenty-four hours. At the metropolis degree, day-to-day trip rate per house clasp in Ranchi metropolis is about 10.35 and mean day-to-day trip rate per individual ( PCTR ) is about 2.25 which include trips undertaken by walking. Average Daily Trip Rate per Person and per Family Average Daily Trip Rate Work Education Others Total Per Person 0.73 0.92 0.60 2.25 Per Household 3.42 4.16 2.77 10.35 In the metropolis, the work and instruction trips together account for approximately 73 % of the entire day-to-day trips while the remainder of the trips are made for other intents like shopping, diversion, societal and medical intents. A big proportion of the day-to-day trips autumn in the instruction class. The distribution of the trips by intent is closely linked with the employment position and the age construction of the population. . Majority of low income group individuals in Ranchi either walk or usage rhythms, for which they do non hold to pay. In Ranchi about 30 per cent of the entire demand is met by travel on pes, 24 per cent by twowheelers, 12 per cent by rhythms and office/ factory/ school coachs besides play an of import function by transporting 12 per cent of the day-to-day riders. Model split in Ranchi Types of Vehicles Entire in no. Entire in % Bullock Cart 1722 2 Two Wheeler 39310 26 Three Wheeler/Auto Rickshaw 21962 15 Car/Jeep/Van/Taxi 25398 17 Buss 4982 3 LCV 8056 6 Trucks 3350 3 Cycle 20375 14 Cycle Rickshaw 20528 14 From the above theoretical account split of vehicles in Ranchi followerss can be derived: 28 % of the traffic constitutes of bullock cart, rhythm, rhythm jinrikishas.So chiefly the parity theodolite manners are used by the populace for motion from one topographic point to another. It creates job for the motion of heavy vehicles in the roads as the velocity of the traffic motion lessenings and therefore it reduces the efficiency of the route conveyance in the metropolis. Merely 12 % heavy vehicles are runing in the metropolis. Lesser figure of Bus / Minibus ( i.e. Mass Transit System ) are used for transit and besides trucks which are used for the logistics motion counts less in figure. Due to non-availability and inefficiency of MTS and inconvenient Public Transport, there is increased figure of two Wheelers in the metropolis. 41 % of the entire vehicle count is occupied by two-three Wheelers which increases the pollution degree and increased traffic undiscipline on roads. Car/Jeep/Taxis/Van are besides used as the transit medium by the public.It histories for 17 % of the entire traffic motion in the metropolis. Recent Developments of Roads in Ranchi Consideration of Ranchi Ring Road ( RRR ) It has been proposed by the Ranchi municipal corporation to keep good substructure installations at Ranchi.For this thing Ranchii authorities has identified some major roads development in the city.The status of the roads in Ranchi is non good and roads are really efficient and largely are individual laned. So it increases the traffic congestion at chief topographic points in the markets and therefore reduces the traffic motion from one topographic point to another. The Ranchi municipal corporation proposes to develop a to the full modern system for safe and efficient motion of traffic. As a first measure, it is decided to take up the development of Ranchi Ring Road. This will be a 85 Km long six lane dual carriageway installation running along the suburb s of Ranchi and supplying bye-pass installations to National Highways, State Highways, other roads, soon running through the Ranchi City. The chief roads emanating from Ranchi metropolis are: Ranchi Ramgarh Hazaribagh ( NH33 ) Ranchi Purulia Ranchi Jamshedpur ( NH33 ) Ranchi Chaibasa Tata Nagar Ranchi Lodhma Kera Rourkela Ranchi Gumla Rourkela ( NH23 ) Ranchi Daltenganj ( NH75 ) and Ranchi Pithauria Patratu The strength of traffic on these roads has increased manifolds doing considerable hold in travel clip and incommodiousness to the intercity traffic. In the first phase, the province authorities would set about the building work of linking the province capital s outskirts Kathi Tand ( near Ratu on Ranchi-Daltonganj main road ) and Karma ( on Ranchi-Ramgarh route ) . It would assist cut down the force per unit area of heavy vehicles on the streets of the province capital. To enable congestion free intra-city traffic motion, supply unhampered motion to the traffic destined to other Stationss, aid in making pollution free environments and supply chief entree to Greater Ranchi, there is an pressing demand to develop this Ranchi Ring Road along the urban fringe of metropolis in the first phase.This besides forms portion of the State Government s policy of harmonizing precedence for the development and betterment of the conveyance sector in the province. In the original specifications, two overpasss were proposed at Kathi Tand ( which comes under NH-75 on Ranchi-Daltonganj stretch ) and at Karma ( NH-33 ) . The province authorities can set about the overpass undertaking merely after acquiring clearance from the Union ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Seven class separated intersections by manner of 6 overpasss and one elevated cross route have been proposed at the undermentioned intersections: 1. Section I Vikas on NH 33 ( Flyover ) 2. Section II Tati silwai on SH ( Flyover ) 3. Section III Rampur on NH 33 ( Flyover ) 4. Section IV Tipudana on SH ( Flyover ) 5. Section V Lalgutua on NH-23 ( Flyover ) 6. Section VI Kathiatar on NH-75 ( Elevated Cross Road ) 7. Section VII Kanke Pithauria Road ( Flyover ) 16 Underpasss have been proposed beneath a class separated construction to transport one or more watercourse of traffic. There are 2, 7, 1, 1, 0, 0, and 5 subwaies for Section I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII severally. Road Rail Crossings: As per the demand of the employer, route over Bridgess ( ROBs ) on two railroad crossings in Section II and one in Section IV have been provided. Similarly one route under span on Railway traversing in Section V has been proposed in position of railroad line running on high embankments. Issues a. The demand for urban conveyance in Ranchi metropolis is projected to be about dual by the twelvemonth 2011. B. Lack of Mass Transit System. Cycle-rickshaws and auto-rickshaws are therefore the prevailing manners of public conveyance. The entire portion of public conveyance is 0 % against the lower limit desired 80 % portion for Ranchi, as per the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Urban Development, GoI in 1988. This is desired for effectual traffic direction. c.Two-wheelers like scooter, bike and moped are the most widely used individualized manner of conveyance, which increase the traffic denseness on the roads and due to high maneuverability they add to indiscipline amp ; occasional the traffic blockages / jams. d. The present public conveyance ( IPTs ) is found to be unequal and disappointing chiefly due to their high cost, hapless service, uncomfortableness caused by over embarkation, slow velocity, pollution and indiscriminate arrests to function passengers.. e. The velocity of the traffic on most of the inner-city roads is governed by the velocity of the jinrikisha ensuing in congestion and really low mean journey velocities, every bit low as 10 kmph. f. Considerable holds at intersections due to non-standard constellations, and increased struggles. g. Indiscriminate parking by dwellers and general deficit of parking infinites. h. Increasing volumes of three wheeled car jinrikishas making extra jobs due to their maneuverability, Road Safety A ; Congestion i. Pathway Most of roads inside the metropolis have no defined pathwaies. In most of the instances the route heart terminates suddenly to Earth, someplace to constructed shoulder. In countries such as chief roads with commercial constitutions the route heart is continued to the next stores or boundary. The building of concrete paving by single store proprietors are witnessed on secondary roads. two. Road Side Railing A ; Curb Stones The route side railings spliting the route from pathwaies and service lanes is virtually absent in the full metropolis. One can come in the route at any point straight from the store, abode or other constitutions. The deficiency of kerb rocks and deficiency of raised sideways or pathway along the roads, consequences in use of full right of manner by traffic motion, and the unguided prosaic therefore ends up devouring infinite on the route three. Divider, Railing A few of Arteries in the metropolis are provided with splitter, the Main Road go throughing through the commercial hub of the metropolis is provided with splitter with inveighing over it, but due to legion punctures in to the railing, prosaic can be found traversing the route virtually at any location. four. Para Transit Auto Stops It is a general pattern in the metropolis to park the lone bing public conveyance manner, the cars on the route, really near to the intersections. This consequences in decrease of effectual clear route breadth at the intersections, therefore join forcesing to the traffic congestion at the intersection. v. Road Painting A ; Zebra Crossing Except chief arterias all other roads have no route line picture. The defined Zebra crossing even at signalized intersections are losing, ensuing in unguided crossing walker, the absence of arrest line at intersections once more provide purchase to go against traffic regulations. six. Signalization The signalized intersections in the metropolis are really rare. A few of the intersections have manned traffic monitoring, which raise serious concern over the safety of the traffic constabulary, standing at center of the traffic, unprotected and without any base. A really few of the intersections have signal visible radiations with timer show, which is a must in such instance of heterogenous traffic. The queuing witnessed at the peak times at the Main Road in the chief market has been about 20 autos in a row. The manned intersections rhythm clip varies from 15 sec. to 4 min. seven. Traffic Jam, Congestion A ; Traffic velocity The traffic jam witnessed at the extremum hours in the commercial hubs were chiefly due to unorganised and hap risky motion of jinrikisha A ; other vehicles at the intersections, where everybody is caught at the Centre with no infinite to maneuver the vehicle to do infinite to unclutter the jam. The weaving of jinrikisha, heterogenous traffic, traffic regulation misdemeanor, bottlenecks all such issues result in congestion and deceleration of the traffic. Bottle cervixs As per the reconnaissance study of the metropolis by experts, the identified bottle cervixs in the metropolis preponderantly lies in the Station country ( Railway Station and Birsa Munda coach base ) , Main market are ( Main Road ) , Sweeping market ( Upper Bazar ) . The primary causes of such constrictions are as follows: a. Varying carriageway of roads in the Main market country, lesser transporting capacity ( two lane route with heterogenous traffic ) in Upper Bazar. b. Invasion by the retail stores along the streets, by puting billboards, containers A ; show in the full metropolis is prevailing and constitutes to the traffic congestion. c. Unauthorized parking along the roads is another ground for decrease of effectual route breadth curtailing the smooth traffic flow. d. Almost all the intersection inside the metropolis are flanked with Auto ( metropolis conveyance ) , sellers right at the intersection and really near to the intersection. e. Due to the absence of clear and defined prosaic waies along the chief streets, the prosaic tend to utilize about one full lane for transposing. Institutional Duty Multiple bureaus are involved in back uping and easing traffic and transit mechanism in Ranchi. Provision of route substructure is done by RMC, PWD A ; NHAI. The traffic ordinance has been the duty of the traffic constabulary section. No individual bureau is entirely responsible and accountable for traffic and conveyance direction. This is giving rise to overlapping of maps and spacial and functional atomization Schemes a. Encouraging displacement towards a Mass Transit System and minimising the usage of individualized vehicles. For case, as per the modal split degrees recommended by the Central Institute of Road Research, 30 % to 40 % of the riders trips should be carried by mass theodolite ( coach ) in medium size metropoliss holding population between 1 and 2 million. Ranchi metropolis requires a wise combination of coach service and IPT service for minimising the usage of individualized manners B. High capacity coach service to link major establishment, infirmaries capital metropolis, station, airdrome and industrial country. c. Options for Mass Transit System for the Ranchi City like Mini Bus shuttle service for thoroughfare traffic as immediate step. d. Improvement of all major arterias, i.e. widening A ; strengthening of paving building of pathwaies, railings, street lamps, drainage, average, shoulder, route picture, route signage, beef uping of culverts etc as applicable. e. Proper geometric design of rotary and island at Intersections. Based on traffic volume and infinite handiness integrating signalisation, zebra crossing. f. Provision of automatic signal system, based on traffic volume where is infinite is a restraint for big size traffic circle. Cycle clip of traffic visible radiations to be fixed utilizing computing machine simulation with regard to traffic velocity, flow and line uping length. g. Identifying Missing Linkss: A Inner Ring Road to be built by building a new route links between Kanke Road to Ratu Road farther to Argora Chowk, another route nexus between Hinoo Chowk to Namkum Chowk. h. Road infinite direction by curtailing usage of route infinite by heavy vehicles and private motor autos in engorged cardinal countries during haste hours. I. Supplying authorised parking infinites at high demand countries in order to cut down invasion on roads by unauthorised parking. J. Facilitating smooth flow of traffic through steps such as traffic signals and marks, one-way streets and velocity control with accent on enforcement of traffic ordinances. k. Road safety and pollution control checks including the review of fittingness of vehicles every bit good as preparation and testing of the IPT drivers. l. Providing installations for prosaic and rhythm travel is a must for Ranchi metropolis. These manners of travel are cost-efficient, do non necessitate fuel and make non take to air or noise pollution. MAP OF RANCHI SHOWING THE ROADS AND ITS CONNECTIVITY Road Network Map of Ranchi

Friday, March 20, 2020

Toxicity essays

Toxicity essays Our environment has been bombarded with toxins since the Industrial Revolution. Everything from cigarette smoke to the plastic factory down the road contaminates the air, water, and land causing harm to all living organisms. Monitoring and controlling toxins is the first step to removing them. After more than a century of irresponsible pollution its time that the public takes a look at the truth concerning toxins and the environment. Toxins cause harm to every living organism on the Earth. Toxins can come from things typically considered harmful to the environment such as pesticides to things that one would never consider, like nail polish remover or the insulation used in an attic. The truth is we live in a world full of toxins. A simple concept of toxicology today is that everything is toxic in certain amounts. Therefore, anything in a certain excess can harm you; the trick is to know what that level is. The solubility and mobility of a toxin determine how rapidly and effectively it moves through the environment. The solubility of toxins is typically divided into two groups, those that dissolve readily in water and those that dissolve easier in oil. Water soluble toxins move through the environment and into the body because water is so prevalent. Oil soluble toxins can also be of harm because of the damage that can be done to cell walls and muscle tissue. They also tend to stay in the body longer by being sto red in lipids in the body. The effects of toxins upon humans and animals are astounding. Two environmental issues affecting organisms is bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Bioaccumulation occurs when cells store toxins that are originally dilute but become more concentrated when accumulated. The result is a higher level of toxins within an organism. The problem with bioaccumulation is apparent when carnivores enter the picture. For example, if a fish eats a large amount of plankton but each plankton only has a sm...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Overview of the Great Awakening U.S. Religious Revival

Overview of the Great Awakening U.S. Religious Revival The Great Awakening of 1720-1745 was a period of intense religious revivalism that spread throughout the American colonies. The movement deemphasized the higher authority of church doctrine and instead put greater importance on the individual and his or her spiritual experience.   The Great Awakening arose at a time when people in Europe and the American colonies were questioning the role of the individual in religion and society. It began at the same time as the Enlightenment which emphasized logic and reason and stressed the power of the individual to understand the universe based on scientific laws. Similarly, individuals grew to rely more on a personal approach to salvation than church dogma and doctrine. There was a feeling among believers that established religion had become complacent. This new movement emphasized an emotional, spiritual, and personal relationship with God.   Historical Context of Puritanism By the early 18th century, the New England theocracy clung to a medieval concept of religious authority. At first, the challenges of living in a colonial America isolated from its roots in Europe served to support an autocratic leadership; but by the 1720s, the increasingly diverse, commercially successful colonies had a stronger sense of independence. The church had to change. One possible source of inspiration for great change occurred in October of 1727 when an earthquake rattled the region. Ministers preached that the Great Earthquake was Gods latest rebuke to New England, a universal shock that might presage the final conflagration and the day of judgment. The number of religious converts increased for some months afterward. Revivalism The Great Awakening movement divided longstanding denominations such as the Congregational and Presbyterian churches and created an opening for new evangelical strength in Baptists and Methodists. That began with a series of revival sermons from preachers who were either not associated with mainstream churches, or who were diverging from those churches. Most scholars date the beginning of the revival era of the Great Awakening to the Northampton revival which began in the church of Jonathan Edwards in 1733. Edwards gained the post from his grandfather, Solomon Stoddard, who had exercised a great deal of control over the community from 1662 until his death in 1729. By the time Edwards took the pulpit, though, things had slipped; licentiousness prevailed particularly with young people. Within a few years of Edwards leadership, the young people by degrees left off their frolics and returned to spirituality. Edwards who preached for close to ten years in New England emphasized a personal approach to religion. He bucked the Puritan tradition and called for an end to intolerance and unity among all Christians. His most famous sermon was Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, delivered in 1741. In this sermon, he explained that salvation was a direct result of God and could not be attained by human works as the Puritans preached. So that, whatever some have imagined and pretended about promises made to natural men’s earnest seeking and knocking, it is plain and manifest, that whatever pains a natural man takes in religion, whatever prayers he makes, till he believes in Christ, God is under no manner of obligation to keep him a moment from eternal destruction. The Grand Itinerant A second important figure during the Great Awakening was George Whitefield. Unlike Edwards, Whitefield was a British minister who moved to colonial America. He was known as the Great Itinerant because he traveled and preached all around North America and Europe between 1740 and 1770. His revivals led to many conversions, and the Great Awakening spread from North America back to the European continent. In 1740 Whitefield left Boston to begin a 24-day journey through New England. His initial purpose was to collect money for his Bethesda orphanage, but he lit religious fires, and the ensuing revival engulfed most of New England. By the time he returned to Boston, crowds at his sermons grew, and his farewell sermon was said to have included some 30,000 people. The message of the revival was to return to religion, but it was a religion that would be available to all sectors, all classes, and all economies. New Light Versus Old Light The church of the original colonies was various versions of entrenched Puritanism, underpinned by Calvinism. The orthodox Puritan colonies were societies of status and subordination, with the ranks of men arranged in strict hierarchies. Lower classes were subservient and obedient to a class of spiritual and governing elite, made up of upper-class gentlemen and scholars. The church saw this hierarchy as a status that was fixed at birth, and the doctrinal emphasis was placed on the depravity of (common) man, and the sovereignty of God as represented by his church leadership. But in the colonies before the American Revolution, there were clearly social changes at work, including a rising commercial and capitalist economy, as well as increased diversity and individualism. This, in turn, created a rise of class antagonism and hostilities. If God bestows his grace on an individual, why did that gift have to be ratified by a church official? The Significance of the Great Awakening The Great Awakening had a major impact on Protestantism, as a number of new offshoots grew out of that denomination, but with an emphasis on individual piety and religious inquiry. The movement also prompted a rise in evangelicalism, which united believers under the umbrella of like-minded Christians, regardless of denomination, for whom the path to salvation was the acknowledgment that Jesus Christ died for our sins. While a great unifier among the people living in the American colonies, this wave of religious revivalism did have its opponents. Traditional clergy asserted that it fomented fanaticism and that the emphasis on extemporaneous preaching would increase the number of uneducated preachers and downright charlatans. It pushed individual religious experience over established church doctrine, thereby decreasing the importance and weight of the clergy and the church in many instances.New denominations arose or grew in numbers as a result of the emphasis on individual faith and salvation.It unified the American colonies as it spread through numerous preachers and revivals. This unification was greater than had ever been achieved previously in the colonies. Sources Cowing, Cedric B. Sex and Preaching in the Great Awakening. American Quarterly 20.3 (1968): 624-44. Print.Rossel, Robert D. The Great Awakening: An Historical Analysis. American Journal of Sociology 75.6 (1970): 907-25. Print.Van de Wetering, John E. The Christian History of the Great Awakening. Journal of Presbyterian History (1962-1985) 44.2 (1966): 122-29. Print.